GENDER INEQUALITY

 Equality between women and men (gender equality): refers to the equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities of women and men and girls and boys. Equality means that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female. Gender equality implies that the interests, needs and priorities of both women and men are taken into consideration, recognizing the diversity of different groups of women and men. Gender equality is not a women’s issue but should concern and fully engage men as well as women. Equality between women and men is seen both as a human rights issue and as a precondition for, and indicator of, sustainable people-centered development.

Of course gender inequality leads to income-based differences (such as women getting less than their male counterparts for performing the same job), and is the reason why women are still lagging do very far behind men in representation in government, corporations, etc. We also believe that Gender inequality is the primary underlying cause of serious crimes such as rape, domestic violence and FGM

Differences in pay

The Gender Pay Gap refers to the difference between men’s earnings and women’s earnings as a percentage of men’s earnings. The measure of the gender pay gap used in this analysis is median gross hourly earnings excluding overtime. In the UK, the gender pay gap was 19.7 per cent in 2013, which means that the average woman will earn 19.7 per cent less than the average man per hour. Gender pay gaps are an important element in analyzing and monitoring progress on pay equalities both nationally and within organisations.

According to the Center of American Progress, one of the largest driving factors of the gender wage gap is the fact that men and women, on average, work in different industries and occupations; this accounts for up to 49.3 percent of the wage gap, according to some estimates. Women are much more likely than men to be clustered in just a few occupations, with nearly half of all working women (44.4 percent) employed in just 20 occupations, including secretaries and administrative assistants, registered nurses, and school teachers. Women not only work in different occupations, but they also work fewer hours in the workplace: 35 minutes less per day than men, among full-time working men and women. Employed mothers with a child under age 6 spend about 47 more minutes per day caring for and helping household members, compared to employed fathers.

According to The Global Gender Gap Report, Denmark is the best performing country on the estimated earned income indicator and is the only country where, on average, women earn more than men, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.02.

Legislative structures may help prevent gender-biased discrimination in society and create an ecosystem of support for women. Out of the responding countries, 92% have legislation in place prohibiting The Global Gender Gap Report 2014.

88% have legislation imposing gender-neutral practices in the workplace, 12% have legislation for mandatory percentage of both genders on corporate boards, and 35% have legislation for mandatory percentage of both genders in political assemblies. Seventy-six percent of countries report having a monitoring authority in place, 38% have gender equal labels and 36% have allowances/subventions to female entrepreneurs.

The India’s Daughter campaign aims to work closely with its partners to address the issue of gender inequality. Please visit our TAKE ACTION page, JOIN US as a partner and DONATE to help in tackling gender inequality.

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR14/GGGR_CompleteReport_2014.pdf

 

Another major gender difference is in the malnutrition of a girl child.

According to the preliminary Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS), 29 percent of children under five are malnourished, and the problem is chronic in remote parts of the Mid-Western Region. The most recent regional figures (in the NDHS 2006 report) show more than half of the children are chronically malnourished.

“Girls are neglected because they are thought not to need strength,” Indra Raj Panta, programme officer for Decentralized Action for Children and Women in Jumla, told IRIN.

Women live hard lives from day one, born with no fanfare, contrasting starkly to the six-day celebration to mark the birth of a boy. Walking along the road from one village to the next, women and girls bear the weight of baskets of apples, rocks or bags of rice, while men and boys tag alongside unburdened.

Despite the physical demands of a woman’s daily life, boys and husbands eat first and are offered the most nutritious food, often leaving girls and women with leftovers.

The Nepal Red Cross, WFP and other NGOs are combating discrimination by mandating women’s participation in committees, trying to create opportunities for economic independence, and by improving education. But these efforts require women to change their own situation, and exclude men from the process, said Hari Prasad Subedi, organizational development manager with the Nepal Red Cross.

UNICEF India presents the scale and the gender dimension of nutrition in India which shows that while there is economic growth of nearly 10 per cent annually, rates of child undernutrition remain very high. According to NFHS-3, 48 per cent of children under the age of five, are stunted due to chronic undernutrition, with 70 per cent being anemic.The nutrition situation of children is largely due to the situation of women. NFHS-3 indicates that 36 per cent of Indian women are chronically undernourished and 55 per cent are anemic.  Recent data form Bihar and Madhya Pradesh shows that girls represent up to 68 per cent of the children admitted to programmes for the severely malnourished. Child undernutrition is very much a matter of gender for three main reasons:

  1. It affects women more than it affects men due to the specific nutrition needs of women during adolescence, pregnancy, and lactation.
  2. Widespread nutrition deprivation among women perpetuates an inter-generational cycle of nutrition deprivation in children. Undernourished girls grow up to become undernourished women who give birth to a new generation of undernourished children.
  3. Women are given the responsibility – but often not the means (empowerment) – to ensure optimal nutrition for their children. A recent study in Andhra Pradesh shows that women with higher autonomy (both financial and physical, for example – the freedom to go to the market) are less likely to have stunted children.

The India’s Daughter campaign aims to work closely with it’s partners to address the issue of gender inequality. Please visit our TAKE ACTION page, JOIN US as a partner and/or DONATE to help us in tackling gender inequality.